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Digital Citizen Advocate Knowledge Constructor Learning Designer

InstaEdu: Instagram for Teaching and Learning

Introduction:

When I scroll through my professional social media accounts, I see wonderful examples of creative and engaging lessons that utilize a social media platform. I have often wondered how educators utilize social media with their classes given the concerns over privacy, security, and transparency. For these reasons I kept my engagement with social media separate from my work with students in the classroom. I never used social media for teaching and learning, but various social media platforms were central to the lives of many of my students. Social trends became a common talking point in class and many of my students used social media to obtain information and also express themselves creatively. As educators, we must understand the significance of social media and its influence with students. Teens are using social media more than ever before, and in 2018, roughly 70% of students reported they use social media more than once a day. That’s an increase from 34% reported back in 2012 (Knutson, 2018). When contemplating ISTE Educator standards for Citizen and Facilitator, I feel that social media must be part of that conversation. Specifically, I’d like to focus on Instagram. Created in 2010, Instagram is a photo and video sharing social networking service. It is the second most widely used social media platform in the United States and fifth most used in the world, but the platform has received only limited attention from educational research (Carpenter et al., 2020). Largely due to how it presents information visually, Instagram distinguishes itself from other social media that are more text-focused. This visual appeal has led to both students and educators to leverage the tool to communicate knowledge and ideas in very engaging ways.

My Questions:

How can educators leverage Instagram to facilitate learning to support student achievement while modeling and mentoring students with managing digital identities? 
What are some best practices for teachers to minimize risk and privacy issues who would like to use Instagram for educational purposes with their students?

ISTE Educator Standards:

3: Educators inspire students to positively contribute to and responsibly participate in the digital world.

6: Educators facilitate learning with technology to support student achievement of the ISTE Standards for Students.

Solution:

According to a study conducted by Common Sense Education in 2018, most teens ages 13-17 are checking social media every hour and with over 50% saying that social media is very to somewhat important in their lives (Knutson, 2018). This reinforces what most already know: social media is a significant corner stone in contemporary culture especially for young people. These are powerful platforms of information however, the data also shows that very little of this time for tweens and teens are spent focused on creation rather than consumption (Higgin, 2017). We must not social media from school given how prevalent it is in the lives of our students. To support our students in becoming digital citizens, we as educators must provide opportunities for students to use social media for creation and to build a learning community while modeling responsible engagement and management of digital identities. 

Do’s and Don’ts of using Instagram with students:

Common Sense Education offers a review of Instagram’s privacy concerns and tips for teachers on protecting student privacy. This is helpful in presenting some of the barriers and considerations of using any social media tool as well. Overall, Instagram scores a 57% warning rating because of possible safety and privacy concerns. Instagram collects a broad range of personal identifiable information. Some of this information, like access to a user’s contacts and facebook friends, can be blocked. Although Instagram’s terms state they will not rent or sell user’s information without consent, they still may share non-personal information with third-party organizations and advertising partners. It’s possible Instagram may use information from a user’s mobile device to be used by Instagram or a third party affiliate to track and target content. An additional concern that is common for most social networking platforms is the interaction among users. Instagram does have a compliance policy that governs what users can post and say, but this still could be deemed inappropriate for the age group of students you teach. Users can choose to make their content private, but this also does not allow for their own posted content to be more widely shared and searchable. There is also space for private messaging (direct messaging) that is problematic in an educational setting. Parallel to using other popular social platforms, using Instagram responsibly requires awareness, dispositional thinking, and sound judgment (Common Sense Privacy Evaluation for Instagram). 

The reality is that most teens already have accounts on this platform (or ones with similar risks) and are engaging with it outside of an educational context. Using a platform like Instagram in your classroom can not only be a great opportunity for students to express themselves and practice key communication skills, but it can also support students’ digital citizenship skills that can be transferred to their personal uses with social platforms. It is also crucial to note that using Instagram for educational purposes qualifies it to be reviewed as an educational record under FERPA. The following are a list of best practice “Do’s and Don’ts” for teachers to use Instagram safely and transparently with students for educational purposes:

Do’s:

  • Review your district’s social media guidelines.
  • Communicate with your administration, families, and students how you will leverage Instagram in your class. Explain clear parameters to all stakeholders. 
  • Create an account strictly for professional use. Share your account information with your administration so that there are multiple adults overseeing the account.
  • Use parental consent/op-out forms
  • Instruct students to create a separate, private-account strictly for educational purposes that is also not tied to any identifying information, like email. 
  • Instruct students to never share personal identifiable information in their posts. Links to their posts can be shared through your school’s LMS so that you know who created which post.
  • Use and teach basic photo-editing tools to remove sensitive information should there be a need.
  • Take inventory and possibly remove any visible student/class information in your classroom. 
  • Be mindful of how your posts could commercialize your classroom.
  • Closely review any picture/caption before posting. Model this skill for your students.
  • Turn off location services.
  • Consult with your district’s legal time to be mindful of FERPA related information. 
  • Teach healthy digital habits and anti-distraction techniques to support students healthy digital habits.

Don’ts:

  • Start using Instagram without consent/opt-out forms
  • Share students’ faces or names without parental consent. It would be best to never share them at all. 
  • Make any grades, assessment, or any part of students educational/PI record public (FERPA)
  • Forget that handwriting is personally identifiable information (FERPA)
  • Communicate with students through private messaging on Instagram. Share any communication initiated by a student with your administration. Sharing your classroom professional account with your admin helps make the use of this platform transparent. 

There are other potential barriers that need to be considered before using Instagram in your classroom such as:

  • Access/ADA compliance is a major barrier educators need to be aware of when considering apps like Instagram.
  • Distraction from ads and browsing. 
  • Spam followers or suspicious accounts. You may consider encouraging your students’ professional accounts to be private to limit this (they would need to approve your follow request for you to view their posts). 
  • the algorithm of some social media networks could also provide unwanted links. 
  • Potential publicizing of content where accounts outside of the classroom could interact with student accounts. Private accounts would help combat this. 
  • Lack of institutional support. Be sure to develop and communicate clear parameters to your administration as well as highlighting the benefits of using Instagram. 

(Higgin, 2017)

Using Instagram to facilitate learning with technology to support student achievement:

Students increasingly want their instructors to use social media as a learning tool while students are also reporting an increase in use of social media as a learning tool (Coffin & Fournier, 2015). When students use social media for educational purposes, they build connections with educators and peers that fosters a supportive learning community (Coffin & Fournier, 2015). Instagram, for example, has shown to “enable students to create a cooperative, collaborative and sharing atmosphere, supporting the formal classroom setting in addition to sharing class materials” (Erarslan, 2019). This same study supports the increase in students’ interaction time outside of the classroom and that students regard Instagram as a motivating tool fostering learning (Erarslan, 2019). So how can educators utilize a social platform like Instagram to create meaningful learning experiences, promote creative expression, and communicate learning effectively? Here are just a few examples to inspire you:

Instagram Portfolios: One way to leverage application is to consider a student’s professional Instagram account as a portfolio of learning. Throughout a unit of study or course term, students can use Instagram to convey their ideas and demonstrate competency-based learning. Students can create visual slides to communicate their learning while the caption of the post can provide additional context about the topic, assignment, or pose thoughtful questions related to their content to facilitate discourse in their comment sections. The limits for the number of photo slides and character length in the caption challenges students to convey their information concisely rather than a more long-winded medium like a formally written essay. Tips like these teach students how to curate their posts to attract more traffic and engage their audience; a useful skill applicable for branding and marketing. Educators can also use current trends for styles of posts to provide a scaffold for students to work off of similar to an essay outline. For example, “so you want to talk about…” has been a popular scaffold for instagram posts concerning a wide range of issues. Modeling different types of instagram posts teach students particular professional skills for the growing job market for social media managers.

Teaching literacy: Social media writing does not match standard classroom English norms, but they do follow patterns of language development. Instagram posts, and social media writing in general, is a great medium for teaching tone, conventions, and varying levels of formality. Just as we code-switch our language for different audiences we’re speaking to, Instagram can be used with other digital mediums to teach students code-switching their online language to fit the various audiences they aim to engage. Activities like Flip the Switch and lessons designed to analyze punctuation’s impact on tone can help students translate their knowledge of social media writing to the classroom and vice versa (King, 2017). 

Instapoetry: Instapoetry is starting to carve out space for itself as its very own genre. Taking advantage of the visual elements of the Instagram platform, Instapoets contain short, free verse poems that are often paired with symbolic sketches or shared on images. Themes, colors, and images are the visual art considerations that enhance the poetry. Instapoetry can be interdisciplinary and empower students to express themselves creatively. Classes can study Instagram poets for common themes to help inform their own instapoetry (Gray, 2019). 

Re-creation: Explore moments in history by challenging your students to imitate photographs or paintings.Consider a particular theme to drive student research and give students choice on which photo or artwork they’d like to investigate. Their posts can provide additional context about the photo or art.

Photojournalists: Students can attend and document a particular event. They strategically select pictures for their post that convey a particular tone for how they want to present their story. They can supplement their pictures with short video interviews and even write an article about the event that they can link to from their post.

Persona Posts: Students can take on the perspective of a particular individual or group to create a post from their point of view.

Conclusion:

Instagram can serve as a powerful tool to foster students’ creative expression to communicate their ideas as well as build skills useful for the potential workforce they will enter. To do so appropriately requires educators to be transparent with all stakeholders, set clear parameters for the use of Instagram, and consult their institution’s policies. In addition to its varied uses for teaching and learning, what I did not explore in this module is how popular Instagram has become for educators’ professional use. Similar to a previous post I wrote about Twitter, educators are engaging with Instagram in similar ways for professional learning, networking, and identity construction  (Carpenter et al., 2020). Instagram (and Twitter) can be employed to acquire and share knowledge as much as it can provide emotional support and develop community to combat isolation (Carpenter et al., 2020). While there are a growing number of studies examining educators personal and professional use of social media, there are less that explore Instagram use by students as a required part of coursework for secondary levels of education. I suspect that this will increase as Instagram use among young people continues to rise at a rapid pace and educators use of the platform for teaching and learning grows in response. State level and district policy makers will need to rethink how they can support these popular tools while protecting the safety and privacy of the students they serve. 

References

Carpenter, J. P., Morrison, S. A., Craft, M., & Lee, M. (2020, November). How and why are educators using Instagram? Teaching and teacher education. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7380928/

Coffin, T., & Fournier, J. (2015). Social Media in the Classroom: Opportunities, Challenges & Recommendations. University of Washington Information Technology. https://itconnect.uw.edu/learn/research/ecar-social-media/#opps

Common Sense Privacy Evaluation for Instagram. The Common Sense Privacy Program. (n.d.). https://privacy.commonsense.org/evaluation/instagram

Erarslan, A. (2019). Instagram as an Education Platform for EFL Learners. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 18(3), 54–69. 

Gray, K. (2019, July 8). Using Instagram to Teach Poetry. Edutopia. https://www.edutopia.org/article/using-instagram-teach-poetry

Higgin, T. (2017, March). Protecting Student Privacy on Social Media: Do’s and Don’ts for Teachers. Common Sense Education. https://www.commonsense.org/education/articles/protecting-student-privacy-on-social-media-dos-and-donts-for-teachers

King, M. (2017, July 21). Social Media Posts as Exemplars. Edutopia. https://www.edutopia.org/blog/social-media-posts-exemplars-marissa-king

Knutson, J. (2019, September). What New Research on Teens and Social Media Means for Teachers. Common Sense Education. https://www.commonsense.org/education/articles/what-new-research-on-teens-and-social-media-means-for-teachers.

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Collaborator Most Recent Post

Project Management and Collaboration with MS Teams

 

Project Management and Collaboration with MS Teams

When Microsoft (MS) Teams was first breaking ground in the spheres of education, a few colleagues and I had the opportunity to pilot the platform in use with students in a classroom setting. At the time, my district and school were not ready for a platform like this to be used with students in a classroom setting. Our students did not have their own devices forcing educators to reserve laptop carts or computer labs to provide students access to computers. I spoke with professionals who used Teams in the workplace and they were ecstatic about its collaboration and communicative functionality. We tried utilizing the platform for online discussions and collaboration, but it wasn’t the best tool to do that at the time. It is also quite possible that I and other staff members were not trained enough to get the most out of it. I do recall the students’ feedback about MS Teams was that it was unreliable and disorganized, which makes sense given how new it was and how our building and students were not equipped with the technology to leverage the platform to its full capabilities. 

Fast forward to present day, teaching and learning in my district looks a lot different. The pandemic forced an acceleration of investing in technology for staff and students. We are not a 1:1 student machine district, every educator is given a laptop, and we are obligated to almost exclusively use Microsoft products. MS Teams is the sole telecommunications platform that our district uses with staff and students, and although we have experienced significant issues and unreliability with the product at the cost of serving our students furthest from educational justice, MS Teams is here to stay for us. An emerging issue is the blurred line between using Teams more like a Learning Management System (LMS) when educators are being told that our existing LMS is not going away. With all that being said, MS Teams has come a long way since I first tested it in my classroom with students. 

Our school district has made a commitment to continue to use the platform moving forward as we work to figure out how to bring teaching and learning back into the classroom safely. MS Teams is still evolving with constant updates in features and  new apps. My department in our school district uses Teams in combination with Office 365 to plan, work and collaborate with each other. Additionally, Teams is also used by educators to host class meetings with students and foster peer to peer collaboration. MS Teams is still evolving with constant updates along with new features and apps. I haven’t necessarily had the time to explore all of these, so for this module I’d like to dig deeper into how to best leverage Teams for collaboration and project management. 

My Question:

How can specific features and apps in Microsoft Teams support the collaboration of resources and ideas between educators and students?

 

ISTE Educator Standard 4: Collaborator

Educators dedicate time to collaborate with both colleagues and students to improve practice, discover and share resources and ideas, and solve problems

Solution:

If you have never used MS Teams in an educational setting before, then I recommend checking out the Microsoft Education web page and/or Common Sense Education’s review. I decided to organize this solution into two separate categories: features and apps. Features include characteristics that are inherent to MS Teams that don’t require an additional add-in, app, etc. I want to consider ways educators can collaborate using the existing functionality of MS Teams. On the other hand, apps have to be manually added by the user and can be added to different locations within the Teams platform. Apps can help educators stay informed, simplify workflow, and find new ways to work together. Finally, my solution is tailored to my current role and what features and apps are available in my school district. I wanted to investigate ways that Teams could better support project management and collaboration for my colleagues and I. Our district leadership has decided to not make available the full functionality of MS Teams for Education. Your version of Teams may be different from our experience.  

 

Features:

One of the toughest challenges for new users, whether they be students or staff, is navigating new digital platforms, especially one as robust as MS Teams. A common critique of Microsoft tools is that novice users may find it busy and daunting to learn how to use them (Common Sense Education Review). With thoughtful planning, thorough training and onboarding resources, and practice, MS Teams can be a powerful collaboration tool. It is also critical for an institution to develop consistency in how they organize their online spaces and their workflow. To get started, I love these pre-generated templates from Bind Tuning (Griffin, 2021). They also work with existing Teams that you may have already created. Here is an description of what a K-12 template starts with:

Teams, Channels, Files, Tabs and Chats:

Teams are online hubs that can facilitate collaboration and sharing of information more efficiently. It is my belief that how your Teams are organized is critical for effective collaboration. Teams can be generated for classrooms and used with students, but it is also a helpful tool in supporting staff collaboration. Teams can be created for classrooms, PLCs, all staff, or clubs and other interests groups. Various channels can be created inside of a team, and this is a great way that the tool can facilitate focused collaboration around projects, activities, committees, and processes as needed (Microsoft Teams for Education). They also recommend best practice for channel creation should be based on the Team’s different needs like topic, discipline, or subject (Microsoft Teams for Education). Each channel can then house files that are specific to the intention of that Team. Instead of attaching files to email threads, collaborators can now access every document that they need within their Team and specific channels. Each channel also includes a General channel where OneNote Notebook are accessible within the Teams platform  or you can add them as tabs in other channels as you wish(if you’re curious about how to leverage OneNote for collaboration, check this resource out as a starting point). Here are some ideas for using channels with staff and/or students:

  • Private channels for small-group work
  • Channels themed into units, topics, or projects
  • Q&A or resources channels
  • Channels for collaborative study spaces for students
  • Channels organized around support topics: software, devices, trainings
  • Social channels for networking or building community

(Miller & Clark, 2021)

Tabs are built-in pages that can be customized within each channel. Tabs support collaboration by allowing team members to access services and content in a dedicated space inside of a channel. This allows the team to work directly with tools and data, and have conversations with each other, all inside of the channel or chat (Microsoft Tabs page). For quick access to any Office 365 collaborative doc, web page, or app, tabs help streamline access to important documents instead of sharing them through email or hunting down files in large Sharepoint spaces. 

Another valuable feature of the Teams platform is Teams Chats. They ways in which we communicate has evolved alongside the evolution of communication technology. Similar to current texting and messaging on mobile devices, Teams Chat provides a quick, less formal space to communicate and collaborate with individuals or in groups. A user can create a Chat from scratch and a chat is generated for all Teams meetings and channels. Chats are great for informal and quick communication for collaboration with students or colleagues. A strategy that works well for me is pinning the chats I frequently interact with the most. Chats don’t get deleted, so you may start to have your chats pile up and this can be challenging to manage and find the chat you’re looking for (there is a search feature that you can use to find buried chats as well). For example, I pin the chats of all of my 8 team members that I communicate and collaborate with on a daily basis. I also pin chats with educators that I am in frequent coaching practice with as well as the chats from channels that I am collaborating on projects in (Microsoft Teams). 

The inherent features of the MS Teams platform offers a wide range of flexibility and customization. The challenge then becomes organizing those online collaborative spaces in a way that is organized and promotes an easy and efficient workflow. Here are just a few examples of how education staff can work together that transfers well to Teams:

  • School Improvement Advisory Committees: effective school improvement programs and initiatives require staff access to rich data analytics and easy collaboration among diverse stakeholders that include administrators, faculty, and others across the district.
  • Incident Response Plans: when an incident occurs, fast and accurate communication helps to ensure an effective response. Using TEams, incident response teams can easily draft and share timely and appropriate information with students, parents, the community, and coordinate additional resources.
  • Social and Emotional Learning programs: SEL programs can promote academic success and positive behavior while reducing emotional distress and general misconduct. Channels in Teams can be organized, for example, around the five key SEL competencies: self=awareness, self-management, social awareness, relationship skills, and responsible decision making. 
  • Teacher evaluations: evaluating teacher performance is a time-consuming, but important regular activity. Using Teams, administrators can share professional development resources with all teachers in the General channel, and manage private communications (in Conversations) and content (for example, using OneNote Staff Notebooks) with individual teachers in separate channels. 

(Microsoft Teams)

Apps to Support Collaboration:

Users can also add apps to their Teams platform to further support collaboration and streamline workflow. Apps can be added to the app bar (located on the side of the Teams platform), to a tab within a channel, or as an option in a chat box. Not all of these apps are specifically designed for educational purposes, but they are still effective tools inside of the platform that you can add. These apps are organized into 4 categories:

  • Productivity apps – increase productivity with workflow and process automation
  • Project management apps – easily navigate complex projects using process automation apps and tools
  • Industry-specific apps – address industry-specific needs with custom-built apps
  • Business department apps – execute everyday responsibilities with job-specific apps

The apps that are designed for education are organized into 4 categories:

  • Student engagement apps – make learning and teaching more fun and interactive, stay on course and track class progress easily, and boost student morale and teamwork
  • Content aggregation apps – consolidate all learning resources in a single online library, and embed and share videos with others; this includes apps that set up LMS within a Channel
  • Virtual classroom solutions – set up meetings for your online classroom directly
  • Whiteboarding – brainstorm creative ideas together

Here is a slideshow that shows apps relevant to these categories.

(Microsoft Teams)

My district only uses Teams as a telecommunications platform with students, so for this solution, I will not be covering apps that help educators track and collaborate with students. However, this slideshow does a great job of categorizing and explaining apps that do just that should your district or school use Teams more like a Learning Management System. It is possible that your IT Admin may have blocked apps from being used like my district has, so this may explain why I may not cover an app that may seem obvious in supporting collaboration. 

Here are just a few education specific apps that I wish were available to my team and my district:

  • Freehand by Invision: draw, plan, and collaborate with your team on an infinite whiteboard in real time
  • Wakelet: save, organize, and present content. Great for resource gathering, newsletter sharing, and portfolio building. 
  • Stormboard: collaborative workspace to generate ideas, prioritize/vote, and organize. Includes templates to support more productive and effective collaboration of projects. 
  • Interested in apps that provide LMS kinds of services within Teams? Check out LMS365, go1, or Beedle. Note – Your existing LMS may also be integrated with MS Teams like Canvas, Blackboard, and Schoology to name a few. 

(Microsoft 365 & Security for Partners)

Apps that are currently available to my colleagues and I: 

  • Insights in Teams – provides analytical data about your students progress in your class that can be shared with colleagues. This app requires that you have some features like assignments and assessments available in your classroom Teams. 
  • Viva InsightsA project management, productivity, and workplace analytics tool. You can schedule focused work time to be undisturbed, schedule coaching time with your manager, and reflect on your social and emotional health. The stay connected experience of the app helps you maintain relationships with people in your network, follow up on communication, and track meetings. 
  • Roadmap: Microsoft Project – an app designed for project management, this app allows managers and their teams to keep track of multiple projects at once. You can share and collaborate on your roadmap, update the status of projects and provide timelines. 
  • Project Another Microsoft project management and workflow tool however, this is more comprehensive than the Roadmap app that focuses solely on timelines. This app does include a timeline feature, but it also allows for better management of tasks and personnel as well as different views to examine the progress of projects.
  • Tasks by Planner and to Do (Tasks app) – The Tasks app in MS Teams combines your individual tasks from the To Do and Outlook with your team’s tasks from Planner. This is basically an individual and collaborative to do list that is ideal for project management. This is one of the more straightforward collaborative apps produced by Microsoft for Teams.
  • Approvals – easily create, manage, and share approvals directly from a channel or in the Teams platform. My colleagues and I create staff and student facing projects frequently, and they must be approved by our supervisor before they can be published. Typically we do this through email, but I love to try and keep my Outlook inbox focused on formal communication with staff. Using this app would allow us to more effectively submit projects for approval within Teams and streamline our workflow.  
  • Employee Ideas – A Team’s app that allows managers to review, manage,and vote upon team’s ideas. Managers and employees can create categories for ideas around common themes. Employees can then submit ideas and attach images, notes, and files. These ideas can then be voted on. This particular app is advertised for manufacturing, retail, and hospitality, but I can see this app being applicable in any team collaborative setting. For educators, this could be a great app to pose problems of practice to generate ideas of solutions.

Conclusion:

My research for this module was focused on digging deeper into a digital tool that is used by every staff member and student in my district. Specifically, I set out to learn more about different ways to organize and leverage this tool for collaboration. Since my district has limited the accessibility of some of the features of Teams for educational purposes, we do not have access to many of the education specific apps that support collaboration. This also made it difficult to consult sources of how teachers were using the MS Teams platform. The restrictions limit the ways educators in my district can facilitate collaboration with students and they are challenged with using other collaborative tools that are approved for use. However, many of the corporate and professional apps that are designed to increase productivity, collaboration, and workflow are available. I believe that many of these apps are still useful for collaborative work amongst colleagues, administrators, and managers. Furthermore, the inherent features of MS Teams including channels, tabs, file storage/sharing, and chats are features that are widely leveraged to support collaboration with students and staff. In reviewing survey data and anecdotal experiences of staff and students, it is critical that these features are organized and simplified in a way that is most easily accessible and understood by all stakeholders. Teams are thorough and flexible, but can be extremely overwhelming for some. We must keep this in mind and be intentional about the ways in which we organize and interact with one another to build competency and effective collaboration. 

 

References:

Griffin, L. (2021, January 25). How to enhance an existing Microsoft team using a Template: Blog. BindTuning. https://bindtuning.com/resources/blog/how-to-enhance-an-existing-microsoft-team-using-a-template 

Hellerich, K. (2020, December 3). Using Microsoft Teams in a Hybrid Classroom. Edutopia. https://www.edutopia.org/article/using-microsoft-teams-hybrid-classroom 

Microsoft 365 & Security for Partners. Microsoft 365 for Partners. (n.d.). https://cloudpartners.transform.microsoft.com/teams-apps-remote-learning?tab=student 

Microsoft Teams. (n.d.). Apps and Workflow Automation: Microsoft Teams. Apps and Workflow Automation | Microsoft Teams. https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/microsoft-teams/apps-and-workflows  

Microsoft Teams. (n.d.). First things to know about chat in Microsoft Teams. Office Support. https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/office/first-things-to-know-about-chat-in-microsoft-teams-88ed0a06-6b59-43a3-8cf7-40c01f2f92f2 

Microsoft. (n.d.). Microsoft Teams: Online & Remote Classroom: Microsoft Education. Microsoft. https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/education/products/teams?&ef_id=Cj0KCQjwse-DBhC7ARIsAI8YcWIqPFaVPRVOqN4690o4bwBPVBnRIj7I1quhHg9Nt4CLxbZyNKrs5FsaAjHeEALw_wcB%3AG%3As&s_kwcid=AL%2111608%213%21496816962231%21e%21%21g%21%21ms+teams+for+education%2112270472004%21123123765531&OCID=AID2100242_SEM_%3AG%3As&utm_source=google&gclid=Cj0KCQjwse-DBhC7ARIsAI8YcWIqPFaVPRVOqN4690o4bwBPVBnRIj7I1quhHg9Nt4CLxbZyNKrs5FsaAjHeEALw_wcB   

Microsoft Teams for Education. (n.d.). Best practices for school leaders creating teams and channels in Microsoft Teams for Education. Microsoft Support. https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/topic/best-practices-for-school-leaders-creating-teams-and-channels-in-microsoft-teams-for-education-f3663ad9-a835-4971-9acb-6725a543c003  

Miller, M., & Clark, H. (2021, January 27). Microsoft Teams Education: How to manage it like a pro. Ditch That Textbook. https://ditchthattextbook.com/microsoft-teams/#tve-jump-171e1124ff4

Rogowski, M. (2020, August 25). Microsoft Teams Review for Teachers. Common Sense Education. https://www.commonsense.org/education/app/microsoft-teams.